Tools for Researchers

ACNP travel Awards travel awards for minorities and research awards for women

Critical Research Issues in Latino Mental Health

Latino Behavioral Health Institute

San Francisco Census, 2006 (PDF)

Methods to Improve Recruitment and Retention of Ethnic Minorities Into Research

NIH’s policy: “It is the policy of NIH that women and members of minority groups and their subpopulations must be included in all NIH-funded clinical research, unless a clear and compelling rationale and justification establishes to the satisfaction of the relevant Institute/Center Director that inclusion is inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects or the purpose of the research. Exclusion under other circumstances may be made by the Director, NIH, upon the recommendation of an Institute/Center Director based on a compelling rationale and justification. Cost is not an acceptable reason for exclusion except when the study would duplicate data from other sources. Women of childbearing potential should not be routinely excluded from participation in clinical research. This policy applies to research subjects of all ages in all NIH-supported clinical research studies.”  See NIH policy website.

UCSF resources for recruitment of under-represented populations into research

UCSF Center for Aging in Diverse Communities

UCSF Center for Health and Community

UCSF CTSI Community Engagement Program

Creating consumer advisory boards

Agencies and foundations that fund community based research often require a consumer advisory board to help with the planning and execution of research.  Below are resources on how to create and make best use of these boards:

How to Develop and Maintain Consumer Advisory Boards

Consumer Advisory Boards for Health Services 

San Francisco Mental Health Association

Demographics of California and San Francisco


San Francisco 

References on recruitment and retention methods

  1. Magruder KM, Bichun Ouyang, Miller S, Tilley BC. Retention of under-represented minorities in drug abuse treatment studies. Clin Trials. 2009 Jun;6(3):252-60. PubMed PMID: 19528134. 
  2. Burns D, Soward AC, Skelly AH, Leeman J, Carlson J. Effective recruitment and  retention strategies for older members of rural minorities. Diabetes Educ. 2008 Nov-Dec;34(6):1045-52. PubMed PMID: 19075086. 
  3. Baquet CR, Henderson K, Commiskey P, Morrow JN. Clinical trials: the art of enrollment. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2008 Nov;24(4):262-9. PubMed PMID: 19000600. 
  4. Davis RM, Hitch AD, Nichols M, Rizvi A, Salaam M, Mayer-Davis EJ. A collaborative approach to the recruitment and retention of minority patients with diabetes in rural community health centers. Contemp Clin Trials. 2009 Jan;30(1):63-70. Epub 2008 Sep 16. PubMed PMID: 18824135. 
  5. Robinson JM, Trochim WM. An examination of community members', researchers' and health professionals' perceptions of barriers to minority participation in medical research: an application of concept mapping. Ethn Health. 2007 Nov;12(5):521-39. PubMed PMID: 17978947. 
  6. El-Khorazaty MN, Johnson AA, Kiely M, El-Mohandes AA, Subramanian S, Laryea HA, Murray KB, Thornberry JS, Joseph JG. Recruitment and retention of low-income  minority women in a behavioral intervention to reduce smoking, depression, and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. BMC Public Health. 2007 Sep 6;7:233.  PubMed PMID: 17822526; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2020481. 
  7. Katz RV, Kegeles SS, Kressin NR, Green BL, Wang MQ, James SA, Russell SL, Claudio C. The Tuskegee Legacy Project: willingness of minorities to participate  in biomedical research. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2006 Nov;17(4):698-715. PubMed PMID: 17242525; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1780164. 
  8. Amador TK, Travis SS, McAuley WJ, Bernard M, McCutcheon M. Recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse long-term family caregivers for research. J Gerontol Soc Work. 2006;47(3-4):139-52. PubMed PMID: 17062527. 
  9. Yancey AK, Ortega AN, Kumanyika SK. Effective recruitment and retention of minority research participants. Annu Rev Public Health. 2006;27:1-28. Review. PubMed PMID: 16533107. 
  10. Wiemann CM, Chacko MR, Tucker JC, Velasquez MM, Smith PB, DiClemente RJ, von  Sternberg K. Enhancing recruitment and retention of minority young women in community-based clinical research. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2005 Dec;18(6):403-7. PubMed PMID: 16338606. 
  11. Keller CS, Gonzales A, Fleuriet KJ. Retention of minority participants in clinical research studies. West J Nurs Res. 2005 Apr;27(3):292-306. PubMed PMID:  15781904. 
  12. Dilworth-Anderson P, Williams SW. Recruitment and retention strategies for longitudinal African American caregiving research: the Family Caregiving Project. J Aging Health. 2004 Nov;16(5 Suppl):137S-56S. PubMed PMID: 15448291. 
  13. Moreno-John G, Gachie A, Fleming CM, Nápoles-Springer A, Mutran E, Manson SM, Pérez-Stable EJ. Ethnic minority older adults participating in clinical research: developing trust. J Aging Health. 2004 Nov;16(5 Suppl):93S-123S. PubMed PMID: 15448289. 
  14. Stahl SM, Vasquez L. Approaches to improving recruitment and retention of minority elders participating in research: examples from selected research groups including the National Institute on Aging's Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research. J Aging Health. 2004 Nov;16(5 Suppl):9S-17S. PubMed PMID: 15448284. 
  15. Steinke EE. Research ethics, informed consent, and participant recruitment. Clin Nurse Spec. 2004 Mar-Apr;18(2):88-95; quiz 96-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 15164670. 
  16. Areán PA, Alvidrez J, Nery R, Estes C, Linkins K. Recruitment and retention of older minorities in mental health services research. Gerontologist. 2003 Feb;43(1):36-44. PubMed PMID: 12604744. 
  17. Levkoff S, Sanchez H. Lessons learned about minority recruitment and retention from the Centers on Minority Aging and Health Promotion. Gerontologist. 2003 Feb;43(1):18-26. Review. PubMed PMID: 12604742. 
  18. Escobar-Chaves SL, Tortolero SR, Mâsse LC, Watson KB, Fulton JE. Recruiting and retaining minority women: findings from the Women on the Move study. Ethn Dis. 2002 Spring;12(2):242-51. PubMed PMID: 12019934. 
  19. Janson SL, Alioto ME, Boushey HA; Asthma Clinical Trials Network. Attrition and retention of ethnically diverse subjects in a multicenter randomized controlled research trial. Control Clin Trials. 2001 Dec;22(6 Suppl):236S-43S. PubMed PMID: 11728627. 
  20. Gilliss CL, Lee KA, Gutierrez Y, Taylor D, Beyene Y, Neuhaus J, Murrell N. Recruitment and retention of healthy minority women into community-based longitudinal research. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2001 Jan-Feb;10(1):77-85.  PubMed PMID: 11224947.


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